The year was 2020. An epidemic swept across the globe, driving all human life indoors. Unrest concerning police action and longstanding racial inequality in the US drove the very same back into the streets. Like cattle, driven back and forth we were, with global sociopolitical and health trends our ranger.
In other words, there was never a better time to read an primer on Cows. Yes, those magical moo-ers. No, that was a lie. This is going to be about the Cow data structure in Rust, systems programming language and global phenomenon, sorry for the confusion.
So now that I've lied to you once, I hear you asking "Why should I stay?" Well. I offer ye nothing less than knowledge of dark bovine arts. Along the way you'll be sprinkled with Rust language insights and regular attempts at cow-humor.
When you've finished this cool glass of milk, you will know what a Cow is doing when you spot one (in Rust that is, for the alternative consult a local farmer), see several examples of Cow in practice, and maybe even raise your own Cows. Like this. If you're unfamiliar with smart pointers, lifetimes, or the borrowing/ownership system in Rust, don't panic. They're totally on the docket. Cowabunga.
But if you're new to Rust, you might consider first visiting one of the many great explainers of how the compiler helps us avoid careless reference errors by way of its borrow checker. But if you're not here to click links, here's the basic idea:
If we run over to the Zoo of Rust's Creatures, we find a Cow in captivity:
The zoo helpfully informs us,
_________________________________________ / The type Cow is a smart pointer \ | providing clone-on-write functionality: | | it can enclose and provide immutable | | access to borrowed data, and clone the | | data lazily when mutation or ownership | | is required. The type is designed to | | work with general borrowed data via the | \ Borrow trait. / ----------------------------------------- \ ^__^ \ (oo)\_______ (__)\ )\/\ ||----w | || ||
Moo. That's a lot to parse. There's roughly three concepts baked into that definition:
What is clone-on-write functionality, and what's the diff to copy-on-write
Why this elitist smart pointer
Where do lifetimes enter in
If you know the answer to all of those questions, you can probably skip ahead to examples. Don't know? Read on!
Let's start with why we care about these concepts: what do we win if we collect them all? Well, in simplest form, we win an runtime optimization technique, for when the data we're handling will sometimes be acceptable to immutably borrow (which is cheap), but other times will have to be owned, which would happen if we had to mutate the data in some way. Back to the concepts.
Copy-on-Write vs Clone-on-Write
Copy and Clone in Rust mean different things. In the non-Rust world, copying usually means reproducing the data at a new location. This is cloning in Rust. Copying is simpler and less expensive: reproduce the data if it's statically sized (ints, floats, bools, etc), or reproduce the pointer if the data is dynamically sized (Vec, String, HashMap, etc). Copying usually happens implicitly; meaning the compiler just does it for us, no muss, no fuss. Cloning, not so: we have to explicitly tell the compiler to clone the data. Any data that can be copied (only fixed size) can also be cloned (fixed or dynamically sized); the reverse is not true. Copy is cheap, Clone is expensive.
Smart Pointers are Runtime Friends
They say runners are are smart (don't ask who "they" are, I'm sure they're out there somewhere). And Smart Pointers are your running friends. Smart pointers were introduced by C++ in the 1990s as a tool to manage resources related to the memory they're pointing to. Like Rust, C++ doesn't have automatic garbage collection, and smart pointers were invented to prevent memory leak situations. Rust does it's best to manages memory without a garbage collector at compile-time with it's ownership system, but at runtime, it's all smart pointers. That's why smart pointers aren't generally a necessary concept to anyone coming from a garbage collected language, like Java or Python (though Java does have a cow).
In the context of Cows, the Cow smart pointer acts like a normal pointer when it merely borrows data, but at runtime, the Cow smart pointer can take ownership of the borrowed data. This is more expensive than borrowing the data: a borrow only requires the borrower to keep a reference to the data, wherever it is. But taking ownership requires the data to be cloned, meaning the runtime will have to reproduce the data on the Heap (whenever we allocate memory in runtime, it's usually safe to assume it's happening on the heap). If the data is particularly large, (a long string or text file, for instance), lazily cloning only when it becomes obviously necessary is a useful optimization.
From Rust's Cow documentation.
Where do lifetimes enter
Lifetimes tell the borrow checker when a borrow is going to end. When a Cow borrows some data, the Cow should never outlive the data. Further, if the Cow takes ownership of the data with a clone, it makes sense that the cloned data still shouldn't outlive the original data. Rememer how we defined Cow? You don't have to, here it is again.
Putting it all together
You made it this far cowpoke. Hold onto your milk, because it's time for a pop quiz.
Suppose we've got a struct containing an immutable generic vector. How would we update it to wrap a Cow?
Well, for starters, we're going to need to import Cow, add lifetimes, and modify some definitions. Let's sprinkle lifetimes everywhere a generic definition appears, and wrap our Vector in a Cow.
error[E0277]: the trait bound `T: std::clone::Clone` is not satisfied --> src/lib.rs:5:3 | 5 | v: Cow<'a, Vec
>, | ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ the trait `std::clone::Clone` is not implemented for `T` | = note: required because of the requirements on the impl of `std::clone::Clone` for `std::vec::Vec ` = note: required because of the requirements on the impl of `std::borrow::ToOwned` for `std::vec::Vec ` help: consider restricting type parameter `T` | 2 | struct VecWrapper<'a, T: std::clone::Clone> | ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ...
Well, it was a noble first try. In the wise words of Rust Sage Gankra, "It should be noted that the authentic Rust learning experience involves writing code, having the compiler scream at you, and trying to figure out what the heck that means." We're living that dream. But the rust compiler is actually pretty helpful here. We need to put a trait bound on T, so that our pet Cow can clone T if and when it needs to.
warning: struct is never constructed: `VecWrapper` --> src/lib.rs:2:8 | 2 | struct VecWrapper<'a, T: Clone> | ^^^^^^^^^^ | = note: `#[warn(dead_code)]` on by default ...
Success! If we wanted to take our implementation one step further, the documentation gives an example of wrapping a generic array with a Cow, which would require a couple more trait bounds.
Which ends up looking pretty close to our vector wrapper, but since the Vec type implements ToOwned for us and the array doesn't, a we'd have to implement `ToOwned` for our generic array by hand.
Alright, so there's a lot more that can be done with Cows than we got into here. But I'm hoping this was enough of a prod to get you up and mooving with cows. Thanks for joining me, and best of luck in all your future Rust endeavors.